This dog’s name was “Shere Ali,” and he was exhibited at Crufts in 1879.
This breed still exists today, where it is called the Aziat or Central Asian ovtcharka. This breed is a landrace, which varies greatly throughout its range. The dogs are used as livestock guardians and as traditional fighting dogs. The dog fights originated from when nomads would come together, and the livestock guardians would fight with each other. They would bet on which dogs would win, but because these dogs were so useful as guardians, they were encouraged to fight to the death. Dog fights today in this part of the world are not typically to the death.
Shere Ali was brought over as the spoils of war from the Second Anglo-Afghan War, and he was obviously named for the ruler of Afghanistan who waged war against the British Empire– Shere Ali Khan.
Before you ask, the tiger villain in The Jungle Book is not named for this ruler of Afghanistan but for another Shere Khan from Afghanistan who founded the Sur Empire in India. According legend, this Shere Khan killed a grown tiger with his bare hands.