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Posts Tagged ‘Lupullela’

lupullela adustus

As we have examined the genomes of various  dog species, one problem has become evident:   The genus Canis is paraphyletic. Two endemic African jackals, the side-striped and black-backed jackal, are actually more distantly related to the wolf-like canids than the African wild dog and dhole are.

One way to solve this problem would be to make the dhole and African wild dog part of Canis, but the problem with this classification remedy is that the paleontology on the dhole and African wild dog is quite hard to trace and still fairly controversial. Anything in their lineage needs to have different classification in order to keep those specimens distinct from the main wolf-like canid clade.

The other solution is to give the black-backed and side-striped jackals their own genus.  In the early part of the twentieth century, it was common to refer to these species within a genus called Lupullela. I’ve noticed that a few papers have popped up using this genus, like this one that examines which predatory species may have left the remains of quarry in a Late Pleistocene cave in Morocco.

I don’t think it will be very long before both the side-striped and black-backed jackal will be commonly referred to as Lupullela.

I won’t be complaining. Paraphyly is something I find annoying.  We are classifying nature in light of evolution, and making sure we have true clades in which animals are classified according to their common descent is important.

The classification of jackals is undergoing a sea change. The creature known as the golden jackal is two species, but the exact way to classify the two species is still hotly contested.  The African “golden jackal” is closer to the wolf and coyote than the Eurasian “golden jackal,” but we don’t have good full-genome data to place the African golden jackal properly. It could wind up that the African golden jackal is very close to the wolf, as the coyote was recently found to be, and this will make the actual classification really touchy.

But that current debate is nothing compared to the way we are starting to classify the two divergent jackals of Africa. These animals don’t get studied as much, but I would highly suspect that there are surprises hidden in their genomes. It could be that there are actually several species currently classified as black-backed and side-striped jackals, and it is also highly likely that there are hybrids among these forms as well as between the species classified currently as side-striped and black-backed jackals.

Neither jackal is endangered, but they are something different, something that is at least worthy of study.

These are sort of forgotten dogs, and their secrets are only now just coming to light.

 

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